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The frequency with which States are seeking access to both communications content and metadata is rising dramatically, without adequate scrutiny. 4 Communications metadata may create a profile of an individual's life, including medical conditions, political and religious viewpoints, associations, interactions and interests, disclosing as much detail as, or even greater detail than would be discernible from the content of communications. 5 Despite the vast potential for intrusion into an individual’s life and the chilling effect on political and other associations, laws, regulations activities, powers, or authorities often afford communications metadata a lower level of protection and do not place sufficient restrictions on how they can be subsequently used by States.

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The Principles and the Preamble are holistic and self-referential – each principle and the preamble should be read and interpreted as one part of a larger framework that, taken together, accomplish a singular goal: ensuring that laws, policies, and practices related to Communications Surveillance adhere to international human rights laws and standards and adequately protect individual human rights such as privacy and freedom of expression. Thus, in order for States to actually meet their international human rights obligations in relation to Communications Surveillance, they must comply with each of the principles set out below.

These principles apply to surveillance conducted within a State or extraterritorially. The principles also apply regardless of the purpose for the surveillance – including enforcing law, protecting national security, gathering intelligence, or another governmental function. They also apply both to the State’s obligation to respect and fulfil individuals’ human rights, and also to the obligation to protect individuals’ human rights from abuse by non-State actors, including business enterprises. 6 Business enterprises bear responsibility for respecting individual privacy and other human rights, particularly given the key role they play in designing, developing, and disseminating technologies; enabling and providing communications; and in facilitating certain State surveillance activities. Nevertheless, these Principles articulate the duties and obligations of States when engaging in Communications Surveillance.

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“Communications surveillance” in the modern environment encompasses the monitoring, intercepting, collecting, obtaining, analysing, using, preserving, retaining, interfering with, accessing or similar actions taken with regard to information that includes, reflects, arises from or is about a person’s communications in the past, present, or future.

“Communications” include activities, interactions, and transactions transmitted through electronic mediums, such as content of communications, the identity of the parties to the communications, location-tracking, information including IP addresses, the time and duration of communications, and identifiers of communication equipment used in communications.

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When the kidneys are healthy, virtually no proteins pass out of the kidneys and into the urine. However, if a person’s kidneys become diseased or damaged, they are less able to leave the proteins behind. Urine protein test screens for the presence of these proteins.

A urine protein test is a screening test to look for the presence of proteins in the urine. One of these proteins is called albumin.

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Proteins are the "building blocks" of the body that also perform other vital functions such as nourishing tissues; transporting hormones, vitamins, and other essential nutrients; and keeping the proper amount of fluids circulating through the body. When the kidneys are healthy, virtually no proteins pass out of the kidneys and into the urine (only waste products circulating in the blood are removed). However, if a person's kidneys become diseased or damaged, they are less able to leave the proteins behind, and some proteins begin to filter through and appear in the urine.

Albumin is a type of protein found in large amounts in the blood. Because it is a small molecule in size, it is one of the first proteins able to pass through the kidneys into the urine when there are kidney problems. This presence of small amounts of albumin in the urine is the condition called microalbuminuria. As kidney damage progresses and the amount of albumin in the urine increases, the name of the condition changes from microalbuminuria to albuminuria or proteinuria.

In its early stages, there may be no noticeable signs or symptoms. As kidney function declines and large amounts of proteins are passing into the urine, swelling of the hands, feet, abdomen and face may occur. If albuminuria progresses, it may result in permanent kidney damage. In some patients, it might result in the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant. With or without symptoms, the only way to find out how much protein is passing into the urine is to test it.

Proteinuria is also associated with cardiovascular disease. Damaged blood vessels can lead to stroke and heart failure in addition to kidney disease.

People with certain chronic diseases -- including diabetes, hypertension, and other forms of kidney diseases -- are at risk for developing microalbuminuria/proteinuria. Other at-risk groups include African-Americans, American Indians, Hispanic-Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, older people, overweight people, and people with a family history of kidney disease.

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Some dude on eBay thinks you just might.

By Lena Wilson

Photo illustration by Slate. Photos by Kellogg’s, Altoids, and Betty Crocker.

This post is part of Nosh, a special pop-up blog about snacks. Read more here .

Sadly, the life of every snack cannot be as long as that of, say, Oreos (making milk fun since 1912) or Hershey Kisses (inspiring heterosexual marketing since 1907). Glorious experiments like Merrell Womens Duskair Maui Chukka Fashion Sneaker Black huge surprise for sale JEnxAW
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might not be around forever—but if you’re devoted enough, maybe you’ll shell out hundreds of dollars to buy the last remaining packages 20 years from now. Don’t believe me? Check out our survey of some of the most delightfully, ludicrously expensive discontinued treats currently selling on eBay, and start saving up. You never know when that craving for “ Ranch Dipped Hot Wings ” Doritos is gonna strike.

Surge

Surge, $99.95 for a 12-pack on eBay Ever wanted to pay $100 for a supply of soda that’s like Mountain Dew, but somehow worse? Somebody in New Berlin, Wisconsin, has got you covered . eBay seller dotcomtwo is hocking the sodium-heavy ’90s nectar at nearly $8.50 per can. They used to sell this hot item at half the price ($49.95), but upped the ante after selling two lots. Supply and demand, people! If you’re morbidly curious, you can taste the sweet, organ-liquefying syrup of your childhood for a mere $33.95 (about $2.83 per can), thanks to Amazon .

Surge, $99.95 for a 12-pack on eBay
Tic Tac

Cinnamon Spice Tic Tacs, $295.95 for a 12-pack on eBay Back in 2015, Tic Tac announced it would discontinue its Cinnamon Spice flavor. If you like spicy, toothpaste-flavored pseudo-mints, once again, some rando in Wisconsin is there for you . Merchant certified-chocoholic on eBay is offering the zesty mints at almost $25 a box, certainly more than you’d spend when impulse buying these in line at the grocery store. There are other eBay users selling the discontinued Tic Tacs for less—$39.99 for a two-pack? What a steal!—but this markup is too good not to broadcast.

Cinnamon Spice Tic Tacs, $295.95 for a 12-pack on eBay
Betty Crocker

Dunk-a-Roos, $300 for a two-pack on eBay Ah, Dunk-a-Roos. Before they were nixed by Betty Crocker in 2012, these cups of cookies and frosting-dip were the envy of the playground. In 2016, General Mills launched the “smugglaroos” campaign, which encouraged Canadian buyers to bring the coveted treat to deprived Americans across the border, leading to our modern Dunk-a-Roos gray market. If you want to shell out $300 to eBay user mightygalaxy, they’ll give you the goods. Fun fact: The sugary snack’s original mascot, Sydney the kangaroo, was voiced by Hedwig and the Angry Inch auteur John Cameron Mitchell. If you’ve got some sugar for me, sugar daddy bring it home!

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By Alexandra Jacobs

It was summer 1996, and the writer George Plimpton was sitting opposite Bill Clinton on Air Force 1 en route to the Olympic Games in Atlanta. Mr. Plimpton, who was on assignment for Sports Illustrated , asked the President to pick an Olympic event in which he could envision competing.

“He answered the decathlon,” Mr. Plimpton said. “He said it was because, there, you had 10 disciplines that you could concentrate on … And it’s quite evident that he has the ability to do it, too. This is a man who is able to stand and give a speech and not have you-know-who popping up in the back of his head.”

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In a word, Bill Clinton is the national embodiment of a neurotic symptom that has showed up as the self-description of overreachers everywhere: compartmentalization. And, boy, can he compartmentalize. Never before has American public life been witness to a man who can open and shut the many doors of his mind and soul with such chilling self-assurance. The country has watched with wonder and nausea as Bill Clinton has diffracted himself into several Bill Clintons-the adulterer, the good father, the loyal husband, the lousy husband, the liar, the truth-teller, the empath, the charmer, the politico, the policy wonk, the man who loved Yitzhak Rabin, the man who strokes Yasir Arafat, the peacemaker, the missile launcher, the liberal, the social conservative, the moral arbiter, the seducer. Is he polymorphous? Is he perverse? He is the man about whom Toni Morrison wrote, “He’s our first black President.” And yet he’s not a black man. He’s just trained, as his generation was, to be all things to all men, and women. And not too much of anything to anyone.

He’s compartmentalized.

And at last count, 62 percent of the country loved the guy.

And 62 percent of the compartmentalized nation said they couldn’t trust him.

Because just as Bill Clinton long ago chose to abandon rigid character for cagey adaptability, we, too, suspect that it may be the only way to survive in the new Mad Max century. Compartmentalization is the neurosis of our time, the psychological refuge of the privileged and the spoiled. It’s the malady of a society with endless choices. Got a problem? Create a new window for it!

Since Monica Lewinsky spurted onto the scene one year ago, the Republicans have been trying to sell us on character, and it hasn’t worked. George Bush had character. So did Bob (“I’m just a man”) Dole. But character is an inhibiting constraint in this era; it keeps you from doing everything you want. Like our President, we don’t want to deny ourselves anything, we don’t want to be pinned down, we don’t want to do the hard work of integration. We all want to wriggle free. We want to present many versions of ourselves to everybody. And we don’t want to disappoint anybody. What did Dick Morris tell the President? The American people would accept adultery, but not perjury. What is adultery? It’s showing affection to too many people. What’s perjury? It’s getting caught lying.